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Eggs: Organic, Enhanced, Liquid, Frozen, or Dried—What to Consider

      Eggs are an evolving hot topic. In 2013, the American Heart Association changed its statute on cholesterol intake, citing insufficient evidence to support the link between dietary cholesterol intake and heart disease.

      Nutrition Panel: Egg With Coffee Is A-OK, But Skip the Side of Bacon. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2015/02/19/387517506/nutrition-panel-egg-with-coffee-is-a-ok-but-skip-the-side-of-bacon. Accessed May 4, 2015.

      The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Department of Health and Human Services recently released the Dietary Guidelines for Healthy Americans, 2015 for review and comment. These new guidelines followed suit. The new 2015 projected guidelines differ from the current recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines of 2010, the advisory panel now states cholesterol is “not a nutrient of concern” and that the cholesterol in foods that we eat does not influence higher blood cholesterol as previously believed.

      Surprises in Proposed New Dietary Guidelines. www.webmd.com/diet/20150226/food-guidelines-surprises. Accessed April 13, 2015.

      U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Scientific Rep 2015 Dietary Guidel Committee. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/. Accessed August 20, 2015.

      These Dietary Guidelines for Healthy Americans, 2015 are not finalized, and it is hard to say what will be in the final release, but they are to reflect the most recent scientific-based evidence about the foods that we eat.
      Many people are feeling more liberated in their use of eggs and are including them in a variety of ways throughout the day. The International Food Information Council Foundation says a full 57% of Americans actively try to consume more protein. Protein is an exceptionally important nutrient for dialysis patients, and eggs are an easy to prepare and easy to digest source for this patient population. Protein-energy malnutrition is very common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Evidence indicates that nutritional status of maintenance dialysis patients does improve with an increase in dietary protein intake.

      K/DOQI Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure Guidelines. https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/docs/kdoqi2000nutritiongl.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2015.

      Eggs are the perfect addition to a healthy balanced renal diet.
      Eggs are all-natural and packed with a number of nutrients. One egg has 13 essential vitamins and minerals in varying amounts, high quality protein, and antioxidants, all in approximately 70 calories.

      The Delicious Nutritious Egg. www.incredibleegg.org. Accessed April 13, 2015.

      All eggs are good sources of vitamin D and protein, which means that the content is 10% or more of the daily value for that nutrient.

      Guide to Egg Carton Labels. www.eggnutritioncenter.org. Accessed April 20, 2015.

      The protein efficiency ratio is the most widely used procedure for determining quality of protein. The protein in eggs shows maximum protein efficiency ratio.
      • Mitchell G.V.
      • Jenkins M.Y.
      • Grundel E.
      Protein efficiency ratios and net protein ratios of selected protein foods.
      See Table 1 for nutrient breakdown of 1 large fresh egg.
      United States Department of Agriculture
      Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
      Table 1Nutrient Content of a Whole Large Egg, Fresh (50 g)
      NutrientWhole Large Egg (50 g)
      Energy (kcal)72
      Protein (g)6.3
      Carbohydrate (g)0.4
      Total fat (g)4.8
      Monounsaturated fat (g)1.8
      Polyunsaturated fat (g)1
      Saturated fat (g)1.6
      Trans fat (g)0
      Cholesterol (mg)186
      Choline (mg)147
      Riboflavin (mg)0.2
      Vitamin B12 (mcg)0.4
      Folate (mcg)24
      Vitamin D (IU)41
      Vitamin A (IU)270
      Vitamin B6 (mg)0.1
      Thiamin (mg)0
      Vitamin E (mg)0.5
      Selenium (mcg)15.4
      Phosphorus (mg)99
      Iron (mg)0.9
      Zinc (mg)0.7
      Calcium (mg)28
      Sodium (mg)71
      Potassium (mg)69
      Magnesium (mg)6
      The market of eggs and specialty egg products is expanding. The USDA identifies all shell eggs as natural. Some other recognized egg types explored in this product update are: nutrient-enhanced eggs and organic eggs.
      Nutrient-enhanced eggs are eggs that are produced by hens fed a special diet that may include items such as flaxseed, marine algae, or fish oils. The declaration of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) must also state the amount present. One egg naturally contains an average of 30 mg of omega-3, and eggs that are omega-3-enhanced contain 100 to 600 mg per egg.

      Guide to Egg Carton Labels. www.eggnutritioncenter.org. Accessed April 20, 2015.

      Previous research has shown that hens fed feed containing marine algae, fish oils, or flaxseed have eggs that are “tainted” with a fishy taste. Hens fed chia seeds have no fishy taste detected, and such eggs would be good sources of omega-3 for consumption.
      • Coorey R.
      • Novinda A.
      • Willliams H.
      • Jayasena V.
      Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.
      Vitamin E–enhanced eggs must contain more than 10% of the daily value or 3 international units of vitamin E.

      The Delicious Nutritious Egg. www.incredibleegg.org. Accessed April 13, 2015.

      Table 2 summarizes a list of the omega-3-enhanced egg products researched in this product update.

      Organic Valley. http://www.organicvalley.coop/products/eggs/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      Land O Lakes Large Brown Eggs. http://www.landolakes.com/product/111117/omega-3-large-eggs. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      Framers Hen House. http://www.farmershenhouse.com/cage-free-eggs/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      Farm Fresh. Egg Land's Best. http://www.egglandsbest.com/products/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      Product manufacturers were contacted to obtain nutrient information not included on the printed label. Organic Valley noted the potassium and phosphorus value of the products listed have not been tested, but they would not differ significantly from the USDA values of the standard fresh egg, the USDA values were included for comparison.
      United States Department of Agriculture
      Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
      The Full Circle product did not have a nutrition label on the carton or available online. USDA values were again used as the only significant difference in that egg versus the conventional egg would be in the omega-3 content, which was labeled appropriately. Farmers Hen House was contacted multiple times with no response on value of omega-3 in their omega-3-labeled product.
      Table 2Nutrient Content of Omega-3 and Vitamin E–Enhanced Egg Products, Based on Single Serving Amount Provided on Product Label
      Product NameCaloriesProtein (g)Fat (g)Potassium (mg)Sodium (mg)PhosphorusOmega-3 (mg)Vitamin E
      Full Circle Grade A Large White Eggs 660 mg Omega-372
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      6.3
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      4.8
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      69
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      71
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      99 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      6600.5 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      Organic Valley Large Brown Free Range Eggs 225 mg Omega-3706469
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      7099 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      22510%
      Organic Valley Extra Large Brown Free Range Eggs 225 mg Omega-37074.5111
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      8077 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      22510%
      Land O'Lakes Large Brown Eggs7065707010%1602.6%
      Farmers Hen House Cage Free Omega-3 Large Eggs706569
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      7099 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      NANA
      Egg·Land's Best Cage Free Large Brown Eggs606469
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      658%11525%
      Egg·Land's Best Hard Cooked Peeled Eggs6053.569
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      5599 mg
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      NA20%
      The entries in italic indicate the nutrient that has been enhanced.
      Vitamin E % indicates the % of daily value (DV). The DV for vitamin E is 30 international units (IU).
      Indicates US Department of Agriculture value for a whole, fresh, large egg as stated in Table 1.
      Eggs are now among the fastest growing food products in the US organic sector.

      Oberholtzer L, Greene C, Lopez E. Organic Poultry and Eggs Capture High Price Premiums and Growing Share of Specialty Markets. USDA. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/866670/ldpm15001_002.pdf. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      Eggs labeled organic must be laid by cage-free, free-roaming hens that are raised on certified organic feed and have access to the outdoors.

      Guide to Egg Carton Labels. www.eggnutritioncenter.org. Accessed April 20, 2015.

      Hens that live in these conditions may have different diets that include increased pasturing, and this could change the omega-3 value of the egg and would be labeled as such. Overall, there is no significant difference in the nutritional value of an organic versus a conventional egg.
      Alternative egg products such as refrigerated liquid and dried eggs are also becoming more available and more common for household use versus primarily commercial use. These products are comparable to shell eggs in nutrition, flavor, and function. Thirty percent of all eggs in the United States go into egg products, and 3 billion pounds of all types of egg products are produced each year. Table 3 summarizes a list of refrigerated liquid egg products and their nutrient breakdown.

      All Whites. http://www.allwhiteseggwhites.com/. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      Farm Fresh. Egg Land's Best. http://www.egglandsbest.com/product/liquid-egg-whites/. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      Refrigerated liquid egg manufacturers included in this product update were contacted, and exact phosphorus values were not available. The “X” in the phosphorus column indicates that another phosphorus-containing ingredient was noted and would therefore increase the value of phosphorus to greater than the USDA value of 99 mg provided in a fresh large egg.
      United States Department of Agriculture
      Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
      One hundred percent egg white products are pure and would be acceptable alternatives for dialysis patient use.
      Table 3Nutrient Content of Refrigerated Liquid Egg Products, Based on Single Serving Amount Provided on Product Label
      Product NameCaloriesProtein (g)Fat (g)Potassium (mg)Sodium (mg)Phosphorus
      All Whites25507575
      Better’N Eggs3060120120X
      Egg Beaters Original25507090X
      Egg Beaters 100% Egg Whites25506075
      Egg Beaters Florentine3040.580150X
      Egg Beaters Southwestern204065125X
      Egg Beaters Three Cheese2540.570135X
      Egg Beaters Original Smart Cups60110170220X
      Egg·Land's Best 100% Liquid Egg Whites25507575
      Egg·Land's Best Scrambled Eggs140148170270X
      Egg·Land's Best Cracked & Ready6063.56560
      X indicates a phosphorus-containing ingredient, or phosphorus additive was listed in the ingredients of the product.
      Dried egg products are not readily available in stores. Table 4 summarizes a few products that were located online and their nutritional breakdown. The King Arthur and DEB El Just Whites dried egg white products researched appear to be 100% pure egg whites. These products are most often used in baking but also conceivably could have a place as an alternative protein supplement. One hundred percent egg white products do not typically have phosphorus additives in them and are a more pure choice. The Rose Acre Farms Dried Eggs Whites is a protein supplement marketed with 100% pure egg whites and 80% pure protein.

      Sport Protein. http://www.sportprotein.com/. Accessed May 21, 2015.

      The ingredient list was not available online. Manufacturer contact was made multiple times, and no response was received regarding the potassium and phosphorus content of this item.
      Table 4Nutrient Content of Dried Egg Products, Based on Single Serving Amount Provided on Product Label
      Product NameCaloriesProtein (g)Fat (g)Potassium (mg)Sodium (mg)Phosphorus
      King Arthur Dried Egg Whites1530NA50NA
      DEB El Just Whites1230051NA
      Rose Acre Farms Dried Egg Whites (Sportprotein)45100NA150NA
      NA indicates that the information was not available.
      Frozen egg products in their simple state are also hard to find in regular retail stores. Their market is more to restaurants and schools, and those commercial products will not be covered in this product update. Frozen eggs are usually whole egg products, and only one retail option was found. Timber Ridge Farms Scrambled Egg Patties are available online through Walmart.com and stocked in very few Walmart locations. This product contains 60 calories, 4-g protein, 4-g fat, and 150 mg of sodium per serving. There was no potassium or phosphorus information available, but other phosphorus-containing ingredients were listed; therefore, the value of phosphorus would be to greater than the USDA value of 99 mg provided in a fresh large egg.
      United States Department of Agriculture
      Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
      Frozen eggs in the premade breakfast product form are available in a wide variety of retail stores nationwide. These products include but are not limited to Eggo Breakfast Sandwiches, Special K Flatbreads, Jimmy Dean Delights, Breakfast Bowls, Toaster Scrambles, Bob Evans Biscuits, Red Baron Scrambles, and Bellatoria Sunday Brunch. These products when reviewed were significant sodium sources and had numerous phosphorus-containing ingredients and/or phosphorus additives present. This category of premade frozen egg products is not recommended for consumption by the dialysis patient population due to these ingredients.
      Recently, avian influenza has disrupted egg supplies, and eggs may no longer be the cheapest animal protein on the market. The USDA estimates that 50 million birds have been affected. Seventy percent of these were laying hens and to mitigate the virus, all these birds had to be sacrificed. This process left a shortage of eggs available for wholesalers to purchase and higher prices for consumers at supermarkets. The price index for eggs, which tracks the average national increase people have to pay, rose by almost 20% in June 2015 alone.

      Eggs are No Longer the Cheapest Source of Animal Protein. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/07/23/eggs-are-no-longer-the-cheapest-source-of-protein/. Accessed July 26, 2015.

      References

      1. Nutrition Panel: Egg With Coffee Is A-OK, But Skip the Side of Bacon. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2015/02/19/387517506/nutrition-panel-egg-with-coffee-is-a-ok-but-skip-the-side-of-bacon. Accessed May 4, 2015.

      2. Surprises in Proposed New Dietary Guidelines. www.webmd.com/diet/20150226/food-guidelines-surprises. Accessed April 13, 2015.

      3. U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Scientific Rep 2015 Dietary Guidel Committee. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/. Accessed August 20, 2015.

      4. Protein: It's Good for Us, We Need It, We Want It. http://www.aeb.org/foodservice/news-trends/breakfast-trends/53-breakfast-trends/234-bprotein-it-s-good-for-us-we-need-it-we-like-it. Accessed August 2, 2015.

      5. K/DOQI Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure Guidelines. https://www.kidney.org/sites/default/files/docs/kdoqi2000nutritiongl.pdf. Accessed July 26, 2015.

      6. The Delicious Nutritious Egg. www.incredibleegg.org. Accessed April 13, 2015.

      7. Guide to Egg Carton Labels. www.eggnutritioncenter.org. Accessed April 20, 2015.

        • Mitchell G.V.
        • Jenkins M.Y.
        • Grundel E.
        Protein efficiency ratios and net protein ratios of selected protein foods.
        Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1989; 39: 53-58
        • United States Department of Agriculture
        Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27.
        (Accessed April 13, 2015)
        • Coorey R.
        • Novinda A.
        • Willliams H.
        • Jayasena V.
        Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.
        J Food Sci. 2015; 80: S180-S187
      8. Organic Valley. http://www.organicvalley.coop/products/eggs/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      9. Land O Lakes Large Brown Eggs. http://www.landolakes.com/product/111117/omega-3-large-eggs. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      10. Framers Hen House. http://www.farmershenhouse.com/cage-free-eggs/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      11. Farm Fresh. Egg Land's Best. http://www.egglandsbest.com/products/. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      12. Oberholtzer L, Greene C, Lopez E. Organic Poultry and Eggs Capture High Price Premiums and Growing Share of Specialty Markets. USDA. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/866670/ldpm15001_002.pdf. Accessed June 8, 2015.

      13. Is Organic Better for Your Health? A Look at Milk, Meat, Eggs, Produce and Fish. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science-organic-better-for-your-health-a-look-at-milk-meat-eggs-produce-and-fish/2014/04/07/036c654e-a313-11e3-8466-d34c451760b9_story.html. Accessed May 21, 2015.

      14. Eggcyclopedia. http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/eggcyclopedia/e/egg-products. Accessed April 20, 2015.

      15. All Whites. http://www.allwhiteseggwhites.com/. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      16. Egg Beaters. http://www.eggbeaters.com/egg-substitute-products. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      17. Farm Fresh. Egg Land's Best. http://www.egglandsbest.com/product/liquid-egg-whites/. Accessed June 11, 2015.

      18. King Arthur Flour. http://www.kingarthurflour.com/shop/items/dried-eggs-whites-8-oz. Accessed May 21, 2015.

      19. Food Facts. http://www.foodfacts.com/ci/nutritionfacts/Egg-products/Deb-El-Just-Whites-100-Dried-Egg-Whites-3-oz/17921. Accessed May 21, 2015.

      20. Sport Protein. http://www.sportprotein.com/. Accessed May 21, 2015.

      21. Walmart. http://mobile.walmart.com/#ip/Timber-Ridge-Farms-Scrambled-Egg-Patties-13.5-Oz/10850128 Accessed May 21, 2015.

      22. Eggs are No Longer the Cheapest Source of Animal Protein. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/07/23/eggs-are-no-longer-the-cheapest-source-of-protein/. Accessed July 26, 2015.