Why Is It Important to Follow the Recommended Diet During This Pandemic?
Healthy Gut Microbiota
Vitamins and Minerals
Other Nutrition Considerations
- Breakfast and snacks—Foods that can substitute for bread: manioc (cassava), sweet potato, yam, corn, popcorn, homemade cakes, and biscuits.
- What is the best choice for a good meal?—Greens (braised kale) + vegetables (grated carrots) + legumes (beans) + cereals (rice) + meat (grilled steak) + fruit. Note: it is important to have all the food groups in the meal. Be aware of the serving size of protein; this will depend on the disease and treatment stage. Smaller portions for conservative management of CKD (nondialysis) and a larger portion for dialysis patients.11
- How to make vegetables last longer?—there is a simple solution for this—blanch the vegetables. Follow these steps for blanching:
- 1.Chop vegetables into small pieces;
- 2.Place the vegetables in boiling water for about 2 to 3 minutes (this step must be done in an uncovered pot);
- 3.Drain the vegetables;
- 4Place them to a bowl with ice to stop the cooking process;
- 5.Finally, store the vegetables in a tightly covered bowl or freezer storage bags and then freeze.
- What foods can be frozen?—Fruits, vegetables, sauces and purees, herbs, meats, cooked beans, and bread.
- How to defrost frozen foods?—Take the bag with the food out of the freezer and put it in the refrigerator until it defrosts, or you can put it under cold running water or in the microwave to defrost faster. Remember that small portions or frozen ready meals can be cooked immediately, without defrosting. It has not recommended refreezing food that has been defrosted because the risk of food poisoning is greater, once the shelf life is shortened. Do not defrost food at room temperature, especially meats, because microorganisms can multiply and lead to food degradation. Never refreeze raw meats, fish, or poultry. You can only refreeze these foods after cooked, as long as they have been cooled in the refrigerator before going into the freezer.
- Tips about freezing fruits and herbs: Freeze fruits already chopped in a bowl and use them to make juices and smoothies. Then, wait until the food cools down before putting it in the freezer. For herbs, put them chopped in ice trays, cover with cold water and freeze. After that, put the cubes in plastic bags in the freezer.
- Remember herbs such as rosemary, sage, and thyme should not be chopped, keep them with short stems.
- •Clean: Wash your hands with clean water and soap (20 seconds). Also, wash the utensils, fruits, and vegetables.
- •Separate: Raw eggs, seafood, meats, and poultry should be separated from other foods due to the possible risk of cross-contamination.
- •Cook: Food should be cooked at the right temperature to kill microbes.
- •Chill: Do not leave food at room temperature because microbes can multiply.
Can COVID-19 Be Transmitted Through Foods?
COVID-19 and food safety: guidance for food businesses: interim guidance.
Running essential errands. In: Coronavirus Dis 2019 (Covid-19).
Tips for Patients Traveling to and From the Dialysis Unit
- •The driver must be adequately guided by a health team about hygiene care including wearing a facial mask or covering;
- •Vehicle windows should remain open, when possible;
- •The patient must wear a mask or face covering at all times;
- •In the vehicle, patients should have access to a 70% alcohol gel for hand hygiene;
- •At the clinic, the patient must replace the used mask or face covering with a new one.
Tips on Grocery Shopping
- •Wear your mask or face covering in the right way (i.e., both nose and mouth covered at all times);
- •Make a grocery list before you go;
- •Do not go to the store hungry;
- •Avoid buying foods that are not on your list;
- •If possible, use debit cards to pay (for faster service and limited exposure to the cashier);
- Chronic kidney disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.Int Urol Nephrol. 2020; 52: 1193-1194
- Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?.Lancet Respir Med. 2020; 8: e21
- The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention.Nat Rev Immunol. 2020; 20: 363-374
- Advances in the relationship between coronavirus infection and cardiovascular diseases.Biomed Pharmacother. 2020; 127: 110230
- A case of COVID-19 in a chronic hemodialysis patient presenting with gastroenteritis and developing severe pulmonary disease.Am J Nephrol. 2020; 51: 337-342
- Self-management of dietary intake using mindful eating to improve dietary intake for individuals with early stage chronic kidney disease.J Behav Med. 2017; 40: 702-711
- Impact of nutrition and diet on COVID-19 infection and implications for kidney health and kidney disease management.J Ren Nutr. 2020; 30: 179-181
- Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1708-1720
- COVID-19: the inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential mitigation.Nutrients. 2020; 12: 1466
- Impact of a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its components on cardiovascular risk factors, glucose control, and body weight in people with type 2 diabetes: a real-life study.Nutrients. 2018; 10: 1067
- A practical approach to a low protein diet in Brazil.BMC Nephrol. 2016; 17: 105
- KDOQI Nutrition in CKD Guideline Work Group. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for nutrition in CKD: 2020 update.Am J Kidney Dis. 2020; 76: S1-S107
- Removal of potassium from tuberous root vegetables by leaching.J Ren Nutr. 2006; 16: 304-311
- Changes in the potassium content of different potato varieties after cooking.J Ren Nutr. 2008; 18: 530-534
- Dietary approach to recurrent or chronic hyperkalemia in patients with decreased kidney function.Nutrients. 2018; 10: 261
- Star fruit nephrotoxicity: a case series and literature review.BMC Nephrol. 2018; 19: 288
- Plant-dominant low-protein diet for conservative management of chronic kidney disease.Nutrients. 2020; 12: E1931
- Nutritional recommendations for COVID-19 quarantine.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020; 74: 850-851
- Nutritional strategies to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress pathways via activation of the master antioxidant switch Nrf2.Biochimie. 2013; 95: 1525-1533
- Impact of curcumin supplementation on expression of inflammatory transcription factors in hemodialysis patients: a pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled study.Clin Nutr. 2020; (Online ahead of print)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.03.007
- Brazil nut consumption modulates Nrf2 expression in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study.Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016; 60: 1719-1724
- Effects of Brazilian green propolis on proteinuria and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.BMC Nephrol. 2019; 20: 140
- Dietary components that may influence the disturbed gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease.Nutrients. 2019; 11: 496
- Considering the effects of microbiome and diet on SARS-CoV-2 infection: nanotechnology roles.ACS Nano. 2020; 14: 5179-5182
- Gut microbiota and COVID-19- possible link and implications.Virus Res. 2020; 285: 198018
- Constipation and incident CKD.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017; 28: 1248-1258
- Constipation in CKD.Kidney Int Rep. 2019; 5: 121-134
- Myths and facts on vitamin D amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.Metabolism. 2020; 109: 154276
- Reply: vitamin C as a possible therapy for COVID-19.Infect Chemother. 2020; 52: e26
- Functional role of dietary intervention to improve the outcome of COVID-19: a hypothesis of work.Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21: E3104
- Don't forget the zinc.Nephrol Dial Transpl. 2020; 35: 1094-1098
- Zinc and respiratory tract infections: perspectives for COVID 19.Int J Mol Med. 2020; 46: 17-26
- ClinicalTrials.gov. Zinc.https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=COVID-19&intr=%22Zinc%22Date accessed: June 11, 2020
- Dietary selenium in adjuvant therapy of viral and bacterial infections.Adv Nutr. 2015; 6: 73-82
- Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China.Am J Clin Nutr. 2020; 111: 1297-1299
- Four steps to food safety: clean, separate, cook, chill.
- COVID-19 and food safety: guidance for food businesses: interim guidance.https://www.who.int/publications-detail/covid-19-and-food-safety-guidance-for-food-businessesDate accessed: May 30, 2020
- What makes a foodborne virus: comparing coronaviruses with human noroviruses.Curr Opin Food Sci. 2020; 42: 1-7
- Coronavirus (COVID-19).
- Running essential errands. In: Coronavirus Dis 2019 (Covid-19).https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/essential-goods-services.html. How-COVID-19-SpreadsDate accessed: May 30, 2020
- Professional and homemade face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.PLoS One. 2008; 3: e2618
Financial Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no relevant financial interests.