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Natriuretic Peptides as Predictors of Protein-Energy Wasting in Hemodialysis Population

Published:April 19, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.03.002

      Objective

      Imbalance between anabolism and catabolism is linked to cachexia and protein-energy wasting (PEW), especially in frail populations such as patients with chronic kidney disease. PEW is responsible of poor outcomes with increased morbidity and mortality. Several causes are involved in PEW such as insulin resistance, acidosis, or hyperparathyroidism. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have recently been described as activators of resting energy expenditure through the induction of browning of white adipose tissue in rodents with chronic kidney disease. The present study was therefore implemented to investigate whether NPs could be associated with PEW criteria and predict clinical outcomes.

      Methods

      We quantified serum N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in a prospective cohort of 231 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and atrial natriuretic peptide in a subgroup of 35 patients. Body composition parameters were measured with bioimpedance spectroscopy.

      Results

      NT-proBNP was inversely associated with serum albumin, prealbumin, and body mass index and, conversely, positively associated with age and C-reactive protein. NT-proBNP as well as atrial natriuretic peptide were significantly higher in patients with PEW criteria. NT-proBNP was negatively associated with body fat mass. In multiple linear regression, NT-proBNP remained associated with body mass index. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant correlation between serum NT-proBNP concentrations and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. This association remained significant after multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

      Conclusion

      Accumulation of NPs seems to be associated with poor nutritional status and reduced survival among hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to confirm this association using resting energy expenditure measurement and adipose tissue biopsy.
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