Hypervitaminosis A in Pediatric Patients With Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease


      Hypervitaminosis A is well-described but overlooked in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been associated with hypercalcemia, contributing to mineral bone disease. Our objective is to assess prevalence of hypervitaminosis A and its association with bone health in an advanced-CKD population.


      We performed a retrospective review of 58 children with CKD 4-5 to examine the association between vitamin A levels and bone health and compared these values between a primarily formula-fed (FF) and nonprimarily formula-fed cohort (NFF).


      Fifty-six of 58 patients (97%) had hypervitaminosis A with a mean vitamin A level of 1,475 ± 597 mcg/dL. When compared with the upper limit of normal vitamin A level for age, the FF group's vitamin A level was 2.9x upper limit of normal and the NFF group's vitamin A level was 2.2x upper limit of normal (P = .02). The mean calcium level was 10.3 mg/dL in the FF group and 9.8 mg/dL in the NFF group (P = .057). Percent of patients lower than, within, or greater than goal parathyroid hormone range was statistically significant with 15 (62%) of the FF group lower than goal and 16 (72%) of the NFF cohort greater than goal (P = .006).


      We concluded vitamin A and calcium levels are higher in the FF versus the NFF population. FF patients are more likely to have parathyroid hormone levels lower than the goal range, placing them at risk for adynamic bone disease. We recommend monitoring vitamin A levels as part of routine nutritional assessments and dietary interventions to prevent hypervitaminosis A to improve bone health in late CKD.
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