Differences in Malnutrition Inflammation Score of Hemodialysis Patients Associated With Hemodialysis Factors. A Spanish Multicenter Epidemiologic Study

Published:March 30, 2022DOI:


      The aims of this study are to analyze the prevalence of malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients in Spain, and to assess the association of malnutrition in these patients with sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, and parameters related to HD.

      Design and Methods

      A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study in HD patients from centers all over Spain was conducted. Nutritional status of patients was assessed using Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS), and was stratified according to MIS values into 5 categories: ≤2, normal nutrition; >2 to ≤5, mild malnutrition or risk of malnutrition; >5 to ≤7, moderate malnutrition; >7 to ≤10, severe malnutrition, and >10, extreme malnutrition.


      A total of 52 Spanish HD Units participated in the study enrolling 2,748 patients. Mean age of patients was 68.20 ± 14.24 years, 1,811 (65.9%) were men. Mean time on HD was 55.63 ± 63.25 months. Using an MIS cut-off point of 2 for malnutrition, 89% of patients were malnourished (MIS > 2). However, with a cut-off point of 5, more commonly described in the literature, the percentage of patients with malnutrition was reduced to 51.7%. Using this cut-off, we observed significant differences between patients with malnutrition and normo-nourished patients in biochemical parameters, age, Charlson Index, HD residual renal function, scheme, and vascular access (permanent catheter vs arteriovenous fistula). A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, HD scheme, vascular access, residual renal function, and comorbidity index were predictive factors for malnutrition. We found that a high percentage of HD patients with malnutrition did not receive oral supplementation.


      The prevalence of malnutrition in HD patients in Spain, assessed using the MIS scale, was high. Higher malnutrition was associated with the use of catheter versus fistula, and standard HD versus online hemodiafiltration, and with the absence of residual renal function, older age, greater comorbidity, and male sex. Malnourished patients had a low rate of oral supplementation.


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