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An Evaluation of Alternative Technology-Supported Counseling Approaches to Promote Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Changes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

      Objectives

      Although technology-supported interventions are effective for reducing chronic disease risk, little is known about the relative and combined efficacy of mobile health strategies aimed at multiple lifestyle factors. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of technology-supported behavioral intervention strategies for managing multiple lifestyle-related health outcomes in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

      Design and Methods

      Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, adults with excess body weight (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2, age ≥40 years), T2D, and CKD stages 2-4 were randomized to an advice control group, or remotely delivered programs consisting of synchronous group-based education (all groups), plus (1) Social Cognitive Theory–based behavioral counseling and/or (2) mobile self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. All programs targeted weight loss, greater physical activity, and lower intakes of sodium and phosphorus-containing food additives.

      Results

      Of 256 randomized participants, 186 (73%) completed 6-month assessments. Compared to the ADVICE group, mHealth interventions did not result in significant changes in weight loss, or urinary sodium and phosphorus excretion. In aggregate analyses, groups receiving mobile self-monitoring had greater weight loss at 3 months (P = .02), but between 3 and 6 months, weight losses plateaued, and by 6 months, the differences were no longer statistically significant.

      Conclusions

      When engaging patients with T2D and CKD in multiple behavior changes, self-monitoring diet and physical activity demonstrated significantly larger short-term weight losses. Theory-based behavioral counseling alone was no better than baseline advice and demonstrated no interaction effect with self-monitoring.
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