• Manuscript categories
• Ethics in publishing
• Use of inclusive language
• Author contributions
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
• Peer review process
• Decisions
• Manuscript format
• Title page
• Support and financial disclosure Declaration
• Authorship
• Abstract
• Abbreviations and acronyms
• Figures and tables
• References
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Proofs
• Copyediting
• Offprints

The Journal of Renal Nutrition is the official research publication of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. and the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. The purpose of JRN is to stimulate interest and research in nutrition pertaining to kidney and urologic diseases, hypertension, dialysis therapies and kidney transplantation in children and adults, as well as to publish information concerning renal nutrition research, practice issues and policies. The goal of JRN is to publish original communications and research that maintain high standards for the profession and that contribute significantly to the overall advancement of the field.

The JRN is a refereed publication. Manuscripts are accepted for review with the understanding that the material has not been previously published except in abstract form, and is not concurrently under review for publication elsewhere. Authors submitting a manuscript to JRN must understand that if it is accepted for publication, copyright of the article including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the National Kidney Foundation. The Publisher, Elsevier, will not refuse any reasonable request by the author for permission to reproduce any of his or her contributions to the Journal. Information on how to request permission is available on the JRN website (

Manuscript categories

The Journal of Renal Nutrition welcomes manuscripts in the following categories: Original Research Articles, Reviews, Clinical/Research Briefs, Practical Aspects Articles, Case Studies, Patient Education Material, Letters to the Editor, and Supplements. Authors should adhere to the guidelines provided for each type of manuscript.

Original Research: Original research articles are full length reports that cover topics relevant to renal nutrition dietetics or renal nutrition science for both adult and pediatric issues. To be published, the work presented in the manuscript must be original; on occasion, confirmatory studies of timely and important observations will also be acceptable. In addition, other considerations for evaluating the acceptability of a submitted manuscript include its importance, the soundness of the experimental design, the validity of the methods, the appropriateness of the conclusions, and the quality of presentation.

Original Research manuscripts should be organized as follows: title page, support and financial disclosure, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, practical application, acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends and figures. All pages should be numbered consecutively, starting with the title page as page one. Original Research manuscripts, in general, should range between 2,500 and 4,000 words, but are typically about 3,500 words, not including references. Tables and illustrations range from 2 to 6 and should be limited to those most pertinent to the study without duplicating findings in the text. The editor reserves the right to publish excessively long tables as online-only material. Failure to comply with length restrictions may result in a delay in processing the paper.

1. Introduction: Clearly state the purpose of the research. Summarize the rationale and background for the study or observation; cite only pertinent references. The "Introduction" should be limited to 1.5 typed manuscript pages.

2. Methods: Provide sufficient detail so that the study can be repeated. Describe new methods in detail; report accepted methods briefly with references. Use subheadings as needed for clarity.

Use of Trade Names: Trade names are to be avoided in defining products whenever possible. If naming a product trade name cannot be avoided, the trade names of other like products should also be mentioned, and first use should be accompanied by the superscript symbol ™ or ®, followed in parentheses by the owner's name. If a product trade name is used, it is imperative that the product be described in sufficient detail so that professionally trained readers can understand the nature of the product.

The mention of critical, especially novel, supplies and pieces of equipment ought to be followed, in parenthesis, by name of manufacturer or provider, and on the first mention only, city, state/province, and country (such as Ross Products, Columbus, OH).

Statistics: Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (e.g., CIs, SDs, or SEs), even for differences that were not significant. Report the number of observations. Specify any general use computer programs used, including the version number and the manufacturer's name and location. Include general descriptions of statistical methods in the "Methods" section and specific descriptions in each table and figure legend. Indicate whether variables were transformed for analysis. Provide details about what hypotheses were tested, what statistical tests were used, and what the outcome and explanatory variables were (where appropriate). Indicate the level of significance used in tests if different from the conventional 2-sided 5% alpha error and whether or what type of adjustment was made for multiple comparisons. When data are summarized in the "Results" section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them.

3. Results: Present the results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures. Do not duplicate data from tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Do not present data from individual subjects except for very compelling reasons.

4. Discussion: This section should not exceed 4 typewritten pages. Emphasize concisely the novel and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material presented in the "Introduction" or "Results." Compare results to those previously reported. Link conclusions with the goals of the study and avoid unqualified statements and conclusions that are not completely supported by the data. Indicate what new information is contributed by the present study.

5. Practical Application: This section is written in terms that the practicing clinician can understand and the potential clinical application of the research presented in the paper. Keep the description short, about 2 to 3 sentences, and in a language that the readers can easily understand. Do not make unreasonable claims that cannot be derived from the work described in the paper.

Reviews: Comprehensive, quantitative reviews of specific renal nutrition topics of clinical relevance, traditional or meta-analysis, are usually invited contributions; however, letters of interest are welcomed. Reviews should address topics with an extensive body of literature to provide a critical summary of the current evidence and applications. In some cases, review articles may also address an emerging topic with limited literature to better demonstrate the need for more research, but if the focus of the article is on a clinical practice issue, this might better be presented as a "Practical Aspects" article.

Reviews should include: (1) an unstructured abstract (150 maximum word count) that clearly states the purpose of the review, the methodology employed, brief findings and conclusion; (2) introduction and purpose; (3) body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate headings and subheadings; (4) conclusions that specify the needs for further research; (5) a detailed and comprehensive list of references; and (6) relevant tables and/or figures. Maximum word count for a review article is 4,500 words, not including references, tables/figures and title page.

Clinical/Research Briefs: Clinical/research briefs are submitted in an abbreviated manuscript format that presents clinical practice experience, preliminary research findings (basic or clinical), or professional observations in a shortened report form. Length usually should not exceed six double-spaced pages, not including references, tables and figures.

Clinical/Research Briefs should be organized as follows: title page, support and financial disclosure, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, practical application, acknowledgments, references, tables, and legends and figures. All pages should be numbered consecutively, starting with the title page as page one.

Practical Aspects:The Journal welcomes manuscripts about a specific renal nutrition topic of clinical relevance for the provider of nutrition or medical care to patients with kidney disease. Contributions to this section are detailed protocols, forms, or other such materials that are successfully utilized for delivery of nutrition care or medical, nursing or psychological care that has a nutrition component.

Material submitted to the Practical Aspects section should include: (1) a title page; (2) an unstructured abstract (150 maximum word count); (3) an introduction and purpose; (4) a body, which develops the subject in logical order using appropriate headings and subheadings; (5) references and, (6) tables and figures, when appropriate.

Case Studies: This detailed scenario should illustrate a patient care situation that benefited from nutrition intervention. Typically, it should consist of a brief clinical and nutrition history, and a detailed nutrition intervention plan with discussion of recommendations focused on practical application. Appropriate laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, and clinical parameters should be provided.

Patient Education*: This section provides renal dietitians with a convenient, easy-to-read, educational handout for patient distribution. Patient education materials are published online only, although they are referenced in the Table of Contents of the print edition. Submissions for Patient Education should be accompanied by an introduction explaining the rationale for the development of the material and, when appropriate, how it should be used. Text should be clear and concise and illustrations should be contained on two pages with expanded type.

Letters to the Editor: Letters should be restricted to scientific commentary about materials published in JRN or to topics of general interest to professionals working in the field of renal nutrition science and dietetics. Letters must be double-spaced, should include a title page, should have no more than 10 references, and should not exceed 750 words. All letters will be subjected to editorial review and decision before acceptance. The JRN does not accept letters that are unrelated to a specific, recently published article; that contain extensive unpublished data; or that engage in personal slander or invective.

*NOTE: Patient Education and Product Updates are accepted for publication solely on the JRN website. They will be listed in the printed table of contents and indexed in MEDLINE. There are no charges for color figures; however, they will be subject to the same copyright laws as the printed edition.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example.


This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

For subscription articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' and the copyright will be assigned exclusively to the National Kidney Foundation, Inc., including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Retained author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
Subscription articles please see
Open access articles please see

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


The Journal of Renal Nutrition utilizes Editorial Manager (EM), a web-based manuscript submission and peer review system that provides full electronic capabilities for submission, review, and status updates. Manuscripts must be submitted at Manuscripts that do not comply with these specific guidelines will be returned to the authors for revision prior to being sent out for review or evaluated by the editors.

The submission process of the journal proceeds online only with step-by-step guidance through creating and uploading your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the peer review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. After submission, the author can log onto Editorial Manager to view the status of the manuscript. For problems or questions concerning submission, contact Sheila Gibbons, JRN Managing Editor at [email protected] or visit the Elsevier Support Center.

Please note that the JRN Editorial Office receives hundreds of manuscripts a year. Each new manuscript receives a unique number, and information on the manuscript is recorded in Editorial Manager. The editorial staff releases information on manuscripts to authors only. Editorial Manager will e-mail a letter to the corresponding author acknowledging receipt of a manuscript, whether new or a resubmission.

All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revision and shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and between illustrations and text. Due to page limitations, the Editors may decide that tables, illustrations, appendices, acknowledgments, and other material should be published online and referenced in the print edition.

Peer review process

This journal operates a double blind review process, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. All contributions will be initially assessed by an Editor who has expertise in the subject area for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The reviewers evaluate each article on the basis of content, originality, scientific accuracy, clarity, and contribution to the field of renal nutrition dietetics and science. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review is available here.


The single most important criterion for acceptance is the originality of the work. However, a decision to accept a manuscript is not based solely on the scientific validity of its content. Other factors affecting decisions include the extent and importance of new information in the paper compared with that in other papers being considered, the Journal's need to represent a wide range of topics, and the overall suitability for JRN. Decision letters usually, but not always, convey all factors considered for a particular decision. Occasionally, the comments to the authors may appear to be inconsistent with the editorial decision, which takes into consideration reviewers' comments to the editor, etc.

Revisions and rejections

Manuscript revisions should be resubmitted within three months of the initial decision; they are carefully re-examined by the editorial team and/or reviewers. However, no guarantee can be made about the final acceptability of the paper. If authors of a rejected manuscript are able to make new advances that go far beyond the original submission, they may consider submitting the manuscript again as a new submission, referring to the original submission in the cover letter.

Manuscript format

Manuscripts must adhere to standard layout and length guidelines. Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word, double-spaced using 12 pt. font (preferably Times New Roman) and unjustified margins. Pages must be numbered starting with the title page. Include a cover letter to the Editor with the submission stating the main aspects of the research findings of the article. Identify the name of the corresponding author. The JRN encourages authors to provide the names, fields of interest, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of 3 to 4 unbiased and qualified potential expert reviewers from outside the authors' institutions.

Do not use the footnote function for references or the comments function. DO NOT UPLOAD MANUSCRIPT TEXT FILES IN PDF FORMAT. Also, manuscripts must not be submitted with track changes.

Use of the present tense is preferable. Refer to patients by number. Actual names or initials should not be used in the text, tables, or illustrations. All clinical laboratory values should be expressed in U.S. conventional units. If necessary, the International System of Units (SI units) can be provided in parentheses immediately after the U.S. convention units. Please follow the American Journal of Kidney Disease Unit Handling style.

International authors are advised to have their manuscripts reviewed by a scientific colleague who is fluent in English so that the manuscripts will conform to U.S. English usage and grammar.

Title page

The title page should include: (1) the title of the manuscript; (2) the name and degree(s) of each author(s); (3) the current title(s) and affiliation(s) of the author(s); (4) the corresponding author's name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address; (5) word counts for the abstract and the body of the manuscript (excluding, references, tables and figures); (6) a short title (45 characters or fewer, including spaces) to be used as a running head; and (7) acknowledgements if authors wish to express thanks or acknowledge assistance. All individuals who contributed to the writing of the manuscript but who do not qualify as authors must be named in this section. Authors are responsible for informing all listed individuals/parties that they are being mentioned in the manuscript and for obtaining their approval prior to publication.

Support and financial disclosure Declaration

The title page should acknowledge research support (from funding agencies or industry) and disclose any potential financial conflicts of interest for each author. Any meaningful affiliation or involvement, either direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, grants, honoraria) must be disclosed. Specifics of the disclosure will remain confidential. The Editors may request that authors of a study sponsored by a funder with a proprietary or financial interest in the outcome sign a statement, such as “I had full access to all of the data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.” If deemed appropriate by the Editor, a general statement regarding disclosure will be included in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. The Acknowledgment section must also reveal all sources of support for the work, both financial and material. If no financial conflict of interest is identified, ‘none’ should be written next to the author's name. Note: If the manuscript is accepted for publication, a summary of the relevant information will be transferred to the “Support” and “Financial Disclosure” sections of the Acknowledgements.


All individuals listed as authors must fulfill the following criteria for authorship. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the paper and must approve of the final version of the manuscript. Authorship should be based on substantive contributions to each of the following: (1) conception and design of the study; (2) generation, collection, assembly, analysis and/or interpretation of data; (3) drafting and/or revision of the manuscript; and (4) approval of the final version of the manuscript. The author who is named as the corresponding author on the manuscript's title page must be the individual to whom all Editorial-related correspondence is directed.


The abstract page should include the title of the manuscript, but no other identifying information. A structured abstract format should be used for "Original Research" and "Clinical/Research Brief " using the following headings: (1) Objective: clear statement of purpose of study; (2) (Design and) Methods: research design including methods and procedures used for the primary outcome and up to one secondary outcome; (3) Results: primary findings of the study; and (4) Conclusion: brief summary of the results directly supported by evidence. Complete sentences should be used throughout the abstract. The abstract limit is 300 words or fewer. A list of approximately five keywords (to be used for indexing) should appear at the end of the abstract.

Abbreviations and acronyms

Complex terms used frequently in the manuscript may be abbreviated. Abbreviations should be placed in parentheses at first use in the abstract and again at first use in the text. Do not use abbreviations and acronyms in titles.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Figures and tables


Illustrations include charts, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Charts, drawings and graphs must be computer generated. Each figure should be on a separate page. Number figures consecutively in the order they are to appear in the text (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.). Figures should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file.

For most types of figures, TIFF or EPS files are the preferred format. The resolution for line art must be at least 1200 dpi; photographs and shaded drawings must have a finished resolution of 300 dpi. The following image file formats are not acceptable because they are low resolution: PowerPoint, JPG, GIF,ONG, PCX, PNG, XBM, and Excel. On a separate page, list the legend for each figure, double-spaced, with abbreviations and symbols identified.

Authors must bear all costs associated with printed color figures. The cost of printing color figures is $600.00, whether for one figure or several. If authors elect not to print figures in color, in most cases, authors will be able to have their color figures produced in black and white for the print version of JRN, but the figures will appear in color online.


Type each table on a separate page. Do not insert vertical lines in tables. Include a title for each table. Number tables consecutively within the manuscript (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc.). Use standard citation superscript symbols (*, †, ‡, §...). Authors should place footnotes in order, reading from left to right and top to bottom, and should begin a new series of footnotes for each table. Footnotes should not appear in table titles. Tables should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file.

If any table or figure has been published previously, a copy of the letter of permission from the copyright holder must accompany the manuscript. The original source of the table or figure should be acknowledged in full reference form in the reference section of the manuscript. The figure legend (or table notes) should conclude with: "Reprinted with permission" followed by the appropriate reference number. Authors are responsible for applying for permission for both print and electronic rights for all borrowed materials, and they are responsible for paying any fees related to the application of these permissions.


References must be numbered according to order of appearance in the text using superscript numbers in the text. References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text and should follow the American Medical Association (AMA) style and format.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Authors using reference-managing software such as EndNote or Reference Manager should select NLM/PubMed output style.

References should be typed, double-spaced starting on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. When listing references, abbreviate names of journals as listed in PubMed. List all authors and/or editors up to 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by "et al." Journal references should include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Accuracy of reference information is the author's responsibility. Please indicate if the source is a complete article, abstract, or editorial; give inclusive page numbers for complete articles. All reference information must be complete when the manuscript is submitted.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Examples of references

Journal Article: Six or Fewer Authors
Eyre S, Attman P, Haraldsson B. Positive effects of protein restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2008;18(3):269-280.

Journal Article: More Than Six Authors
Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Sanchez R, Garcýa L, et al. Acute responses of gastrointestinal hormones to both oral and parenteral intradialytic nutrition. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(3):272-278.

Journal Article in Press
Steiber AL, Kopple JD. Vitamin status and needs for people with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. (in press)

Complete Book
Byham-Gray LD, Burrowes JD, Chertow GM, eds. Nutrition in Kidney Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008.

Chapter in Book
Wilkens KG, Juneja V. Medical nutrition therapy for renal disorders. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause's Food & Nutrition Therapy. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2008:921-958.

Journal Article in a Supplement
Gullett NP, Hebbar G, Ziegler TR. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4)(suppl):S1143-S1147.

PubMed Abstract Citation
Szklarek-Kubicka M, Fijalkowska-Morawska J, Zaremba- Drobnik D, Ucinski A, Czekalski S, Nowicki M. Effect of intradialytic intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory response in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study [abstract]. J Ren Nutr. 2009;19(6):487-493. Accessed December 24, 2010. PMID: 19616450.

McCarron DA, Drueke TB, Stricker EM. Science trumps politics: urinary sodium data challenge US dietary sodium guideline [editorial]. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1005-1006.

EPub Ahead of Print
Kagoma YK, Weir A, Iansavichus AV, et al. Impact of estimated GFR reporting on patients, clinicians, and health-care systems: a systematic review [published online ahead of print December 9 2010]. Am J Kidney Dis . 2010. 21146269. Accessed December 24, 2010.

Data Reference
[dataset] Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. This material should be important to the understanding and interpretation of the paper and should not repeat material in the article. Supplementary material should be original and not previously published. It will under undergo editorial and peer review with the main manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication and if the editors deem the online only material appropriate for publication, it will be posted online at the time of publication of the article as additional material provided by the authors.

Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. Each supplementary item should be cited in the text of the main manuscript (e.g., see Table S1). If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Accepted manuscripts are sent to the publisher, Elsevier. Once an article has been copyedited, typeset, and authors have reviewed the proof and submitted corrections, the author-corrected proof will be uploaded to the JRN websites ( and under "Articles in Press" for pre-print viewing by subscribers. The corrected proof of the article is also delivered to PubMed for indexing. When the article is assigned to a specific issue of JRN, it moves from the Articles in Press section to the table of contents of that issue.

This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the Journal Pre-proofs (both in HTML and PDF format), which have undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but are not yet the definitive versions of record. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters): When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


The corresponding author can expect one set of page proofs in PDF format via e-mail approximately two months after acceptance. The PDF proofs can be annotated using Adobe Reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. If the author(s) do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, the corrections can be listed (including replies to the Query Form) and returned to Elsevier via email. Please list corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, the corrections and any other comments can be sent (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of the proof and returned by fax, scan or e-mail.

Please only check the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and illustrations. Significant changes to the article after it has been accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all corrections are returned to Elsevier in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note: With permission from the Editor, Elsevier may proceed with the publication of the article if the proofs are not returned.

Authors are expected to review proofs promptly (within 48 hours of receipt).


Manuscripts are copyedited to make them consistent with the Journal style; if a particular section in the manuscript is not clear or requires additional information, the copy editor will direct questions to the author. These questions, or "author queries," will appear in the margins of the proofs that are sent to the author. Changes made by the copy editors for style, grammar, and readability should not be altered by the author(s) unless a scientific error has been introduced.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

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